Automatic and non-conscious cognition. Semantic processing without conscious identification was examined with psychophysiological methods. Event-related brain responses (ERPs) showed that brief visual displays of masked words undergo semantic processing, even when the words cannot be consciously identified (Stenberg, Lindgren, Johansson, Olsson, & Rosén, 2000). In a study of face processing, affective facial expression proved to undergo evaluative processing without conscious intent (Stenberg, Wiking, & Dahl, 1998).

Cognitive processing of words and pictures. Reaction time data were used to contrast recognition memory for pictures with that for words, and theories of the memory codes for words and images were examined (Stenberg, Radeborg, & Hedman, 1995). In an application of computational modelling, separate estimates of perceptual and conceptual contributions to the picture superiority effect were derived from three experiments (Stenberg, in press).

Memory. False memory (Johansson & Stenberg, 2002), reality monitoring (Johansson, Lindgren, Rosén, & Stenberg, 2002), perceptual and conceptual retrieval orientations (Stenberg, Johansson, & Rosén, 2005) have been investigated in behavioural and electrophysiological studies.

Semantic memory. Current projects are concerned with bilingual memory (Stenberg, Johansson, & Rosén, 2004), and semantic priming in schizophrenia (Stenberg, Carlsson, Jonsson, Johansson, Rosén, & Lundvall, 2005).

Biological correlates of personality. The biological basis of extraversion-introversion has been investigated with different psychophysiological methods: EEG (Stenberg, 1992), event-related potentials (Stenberg, 1994; Stenberg, Rosén, & Risberg, 1988; Stenberg, Rosén, & Risberg, 1990), and regional cerebral blood flow (Stenberg, Risberg, Warkentin, & Rosén, 1990; Stenberg, Wendt, & Risberg, 1993)

Other applications of electrophysiology and brain imaging. Psychophysiological methods have been used to study the effects of alcohol (Sano et al., 1993; Stenberg, Sano, Rosen, & Ingvar, 1994; Wendt, Risberg, Stenberg, Rosen, & Ingvar, 1994), nicotine (Lindgren, Stenberg, & Rosén, 1996, 1998; Lindgren, Stenberg, & Rosén, 1999), and other phenomena of clinical interest (Decety, Sjöholm, Ryding, Stenberg, & Ingvar, 1990; Ryding, Decety, Sjöholm, Stenberg, & Ingvar, 1993; Tallroth, Lindgren, Stenberg, Rosen, & Agardh, 1990; Wirsen, Stenberg, Rosen, & Ingvar, 1992).